#### 9.1 – Nuclear Radiation Cs-137

**Learning Objectives:**

- Define the term “standard deviation” and use it to determine the “standard error” on a set of measurements.
- Use the “square root” of a series of collected counts of a radioactive sample to bracket experimental data points to show their uncertainty.
- Differentiate between beta and gamma radiation, and estimate the range of beta radiation in common materials.
- Define the term “half life,” and determine the half life of an electron-storage device and a radioactive isotope by examination of experimental data.

#### 9.2 – Nuclear Radiation Th-232

**Learning Objectives:**

- Define the term “standard deviation” and use it to determine the “standard error” on a set of measurements.
- Use the “square root” of a series of collected counts of a radioactive sample to bracket experimental data points to show their uncertainty.
- Differentiate between beta and gamma radiation, and estimate the range of beta radiation in common materials.
- Define the term “half life,” and determine the half life of an electron-storage device and a radioactive isotope by examination of experimental data.

#### 12.1 – Math Modeling – MicroLAB and/or 12.2 – Math Modeling – Excel

**Learning Objectives**

- Learn how models are used in science
- Learn to use computerized regression analysis for curve fitting
- Learn to use mathematical modeling to determine the relationships of the variables

#### 12.3 – The Scientific Method Investigations

**Learning Objectives**

- Introduce the student to the basic steps of the Scientific Method.
- Give practical experience in the Scientific Method by solving a simple physical problem via this methodology.
- Provide experience in presenting the results of the investigation orally and in writing.

#### 13.1 – Computerized Qualitative Analysis

**Learning Objectives**

- Use the formation of precipitates and complex ions and an understanding of relative stability sequences, (i.e., transforming one compound or complex into a more stable compound or complex) to separate the cations and anions from each other into major groupings.
- Separate the individual ions of a group from each other in order that each separate ion can then be caused to undergo a reaction specific for that ion which conclusively identifies it from all other ions in a “
**confirmation test**” - Understand the origin of and the importance of colors, complex ions, precipitates and stability sequences in the Qualitative Analysis schema.
- Understand and be able to use the logical thought processes involved in developing a qualitative analysis schema.

#### 14.1 – Creating & Drawing Information from EXCEL Graphs

**Learning Objectives**

- Learn to use graphs to draw information from experimental data. Part of this exercise involves work with the
**EXCEL**spreadsheet and a series of example problems.